What is VID in Aviation? (Visible Impact Damage)

Visible Impact Damage (VID) in aviation refers to the external damage that can be seen on an aircraft’s structure or components as a result of an impact or collision. These damages are typically caused by various factors, including bird strikes, hailstorms, ground handling incidents, or other types of accidents. VID can pose significant threats to the structural integrity and overall safety of the aircraft if not identified and addressed promptly.

When an aircraft undergoes impact damage, it can result in structural deformities, surface scratches, dents, or even fractures. Although some of these damages may seem minor, they can have serious consequences if left unattended, as they may compromise the aerodynamic performance, fuel efficiency, and overall strength of the aircraft.

Proper inspection and assessment of visible impact damage are crucial to ensuring the airworthiness and safety of an aircraft. Airlines and maintenance crews have well-defined protocols and procedures in place to identify and repair VID to maintain the structural integrity and performance of the aircraft.

Causes and Types of Visible Impact Damage

Visible impact damage can result from various events and situations. Let’s explore some common causes and types of VID in aviation:

1. Bird Strikes

Bird strikes occur when birds collide with an aircraft while it is in flight or during takeoff or landing. These collisions can lead to visible damage, including scratches, dents, punctures, or even breakages on the aircraft’s exterior surfaces, such as the wings, nose, leading edges, windshield, or engine intake areas.

In some cases, bird strikes can also result in internal damage, such as to the engine components. The force of impact can cause blades to fracture or become unbalanced, potentially leading to engine failure. Thus, bird strikes represent a significant safety concern in aviation, making it essential to inspect and repair all visible impact damage caused by bird collisions.

2. Hailstorms

Hailstorms can inflict substantial visible impact damage on an aircraft. During a hailstorm, the aircraft’s exterior surfaces are bombarded with hailstones of varying sizes and speeds. As a result, the aircraft may experience dents, scratches, and even fractures on its fuselage, wings, control surfaces, or windshield.

The severity of hailstorm damage can vary depending on the size and density of the hailstones, as well as the speed of the aircraft at the time of impact. If not addressed, hail damage can lead to compromised structural integrity and may affect the aircraft’s aerodynamic performance, fuel efficiency, and overall safety.

3. Ground Handling Incidents

Ground handling incidents can also lead to visible impact damage on aircraft. These incidents can occur during activities such as towing, parking, or loading/unloading of cargo or passengers. Accidental collisions with ground service equipment, jet bridges, or other aircraft can cause dents, scratches, or damage to external components like wingtips, empennage, or even landing gear.

While ground handling incidents may not always result in immediate flight safety concerns, it is crucial to assess and repair any visible impact damage promptly. Ignoring such damages can lead to further structural deterioration and potential safety risks in the long run.

Inspection and Repair of Visible Impact Damage

Inspection and repair processes for visible impact damage are essential to maintaining the airworthiness and safety of an aircraft. Let’s delve into the steps involved in inspecting and repairing VID:

1. Initial Inspection

The first step in addressing visible impact damage is an initial inspection. This involves a thorough visual assessment of the aircraft’s exterior surfaces, components, and systems. The inspection aims to identify any visible signs of damage caused by impacts, such as dents, cracks, or deformities.

Qualified aviation technicians or engineers perform these inspections, following established guidelines and maintenance manuals. They carefully examine the affected areas, paying attention to details and documenting the findings for further analysis.

2. Non-Destructive Testing (NDT)

In cases where visible impact damage is significant or involves critical components, non-destructive testing (NDT) methods are utilized. NDT techniques allow for a more in-depth evaluation of the affected structures or parts without causing further damage or disassembling the aircraft.

Common NDT methods used for assessing visible impact damage include:

Ultrasound Testing (UT): This technique uses high-frequency sound waves to detect flaws or irregularities within materials. It can reveal hidden cracks or fractures that are not immediately visible to the naked eye.

Visual Inspection (VI): Although it may seem redundant, visual inspection is also considered an NDT method. It allows for more detailed scrutiny and close-up examination than the initial visual inspection, helping detect any hidden or subtle signs of damage.

Eddy Current Testing (ECT): ECT employs electromagnetic induction to detect surface and near-surface flaws in conductive materials. It can identify cracks, corrosion, or other damages that impact the material’s electrical conductivity.

3. Damage Assessment and Repair

After completing the inspections and NDT procedures, the next step is damage assessment. This involves analyzing the extent of the visible impact damage and determining the appropriate repairs or corrective actions needed.

The assessment considers various factors, such as the severity of the damage, its location, the type of material affected, and the aircraft manufacturer’s guidelines. Based on this analysis, engineers or maintenance personnel develop repair plans and implement the necessary fixes.

Repair methods for visible impact damage can range from minor cosmetic fixes to more extensive structural repairs. Some common repair techniques include:

Aluminum Panel Repair: For damages on aluminum panels, techniques like riveting, skin patching, or section replacement may be employed, depending on the severity and location of the damage.

Composite Repair: Composite materials, such as carbon fiber-reinforced polymers, require specialized repair techniques. These may involve patching damaged areas, using composite bonding agents or fillers, and then curing the repaired sections to restore structural integrity.

Interchangeability Replacement: In cases where damaged components have interchangeable parts, swapping the damaged part with a new or serviceable component is a common repair solution. This approach ensures the replacement part meets all safety and performance requirements.


Visible impact damage (VID) in aviation encompasses the external damage caused by impacts or collisions. Whether from bird strikes, hailstorms, or ground handling incidents, this type of damage can pose significant risks to an aircraft’s safety and structural integrity. Prompt inspection and repair of VID are crucial to maintaining the airworthiness and performance of the aircraft.

Airlines and maintenance crews follow strict protocols and procedures to identify, assess, and repair visible impact damage. This involves initial inspections, non-destructive testing (NDT) methods, damage assessment, and appropriate repair techniques tailored to the specific damage and aircraft type.

By understanding the causes, types, and repair processes associated with visible impact damage, the aviation industry can ensure that aircraft remain safe, reliable, and flight-worthy throughout their operational lifespan.

For More: What is NAVAID in Aviation? (Navigational Aid)